A Framework for Additive ESL/Bilingual Education in Urban Schools: A Reflection on the United States' Situation

Raúl Alberto Mora


This critical literature review is the result of a reflection about some of the problems affecting ESL instruction in U.S. Urban schools. The article first situates the problem of ESL/Bilingual Education, including historical background and political and human rights education standpoints. The second part of the paper offers some research-based considerations to improve the quality of instructions in ESL classrooms. The author's recommendations stem from Valenzuela's (1999) idea of additive schooling (p. 269-272) and how such schooling has to go beyond the classroom, influencing other factors affecting instruction. The final part of this paper is a discussion of some of the challenges ahead to promote better practice in these schools.


ESL; bilingual education; urban education; minority human rights; critical literature review

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