Considering New Perspectives in ELT in Colombia: From EFL to ELF

Main Article Content

Diego Fernando Macías


This article aims to explore the characteristics of English as a lingua franca (ELF) as an alternative to English Language Teaching (ELT) in Colombia. It focuses initially on the role played by English in the country and on what the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) model has offered the teaching of English. This is followed by considerations regarding aspects such as teachers, methodologies, teaching materials and culture from the viewpoint of ELF. In short, the author suggests a more international dimension to the teaching of English in Colombia in an attempt to reduce the role played by hegemonic dominant Inner Circle (Kachru, 1992) varieties in ELT in Colombia.

Article Details

How to Cite
Macías, D. F. (2010). Considering New Perspectives in ELT in Colombia: From EFL to ELF. HOW Journal, 17(1), 181-194. Retrieved from
Reflections and Revision of Themes
Author Biography

Diego Fernando Macías, Universidad Surcolombiana, Neiva

Diego Fernando Macías works as an assistant professor of English and Literature at the EFL Teacher Education Program at Universidad Surcolombiana. He holds an M.A. in English from Governors State University (USA) and is about to finish an M.A. in TESOL from the University of Brighton (UK). He is mainly interested in the areas of teaching English as an international language, language teacher education and technology in language teaching.


Aston, G. (1993). Notes on the interlanguage of comity. In Kasper, C. & Blum-Kulka, S. (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 224-250). New York: Oxford University Press.

Basabe, E. (2006). From de-anglicization to internationalisation: Cultural representations of the UK and the USA in global, adapted and local ELT textbooks in Argentina. Profile Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 7(1), 59-75.

Berns, M. (2005). Expanding on the expanding circle: where do WE go from here? World Englishes, 24(1), 85-93.

Burt, C. (2005). What is international English? Teachers College, Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 5(1), 1-20.

Colombian Ministry of Education. (2005). Bases para una nación bilingüe y competitiva. Altablero, 37. Retrieved from

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Dalton, C. & Seidlhofer, B. (1994). Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Davidson, K. (2007). The nature and significance of English as a global language. English Today, 23(1), 48-50.

Davies, A. (2003). The native speaker: Myth and reality. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Firth, A. (1996). The discursive accomplishment of normality: On ‘lingua franca’ English and conversation analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 26, 237-259.

Gilmore, A. (2007). Authentic materials and authenticity in foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 40(2), 97-118.

González, A. (2007). Professional development of EFL teachers in Colombia: Between colonial and local practices. Íkala, 12(18), 307-332.

González, A. (2009). On Alternative and additional certifications in English language teaching: The case of Colombian EFL teachers’ professional development. Íkala, 14(22), 183-209.

Graddol, D., McArtur, T., Flack, D. & Amey, J. (1999). English around the world. In Graddol, D. & Meinhoff, U.H. (Eds.), English in a changing world. The AILA review 13, 3-18.

Graddol, D. (2006). English Next. London: The British Council.

House, J. (1999). Misunderstanding in intercultural communication: Interactions in English as a lingua franca and the myth of mutual intelligibility. In Gnutzmann, C. (Ed.), Teaching and learning English as a global language (pp. 73-89). Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

Hsuan-Yau, T. (2008). English as an international language? Taiwanese university teachers’ dilemma and struggle. English Today, 24(3), 39-45.

Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language: New models, new norms, new goals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, J. (2003). World Englishes: A resource book for students. London: Routledge.

Jenkins, J. (2006). Current Perspectives on Teaching World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 157–181.

Kachru, B. (1992). The other tongue: English across cultures. (2nd ed.), Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Kachru, Y. & Smith, L. (2009). The karmic cycle of world Englishes: Some futuristic constructs. World Englishes, 28(1), 1-14.

Ladegaard, H., & Sachdev, I. (2006). I like the Americans but I certainly don’t aim for an American accent: Language attitudes, vitality and foreign language learning in Denmark. Journal of Multicultural and Multilingual Development, 27(2), 91-108.

Matsuda, A. (2002). ‘International understanding’ through teaching world Englishes. World Englishes, 21(3), 436-440.

McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Medgyes, P. (1992). Native or non-native: who’s worth more? ELT Journal, 46(4), 340-349.

Mejía, A. M. de (2004). Bilingual education in Colombia: Towards an integrated perspective. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 7(5), 381-397.

Oviedo, T. N. (2002). La selección de texto guía para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de idiomas. Lenguaje, 29-30, 110-130. [Adobe Digital Editions version] Retrieved from

Phillipson, R., & Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1999). Englishisation: One dimension of globalization. AILA Review, 13, 19-36.

Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Prodromou, L. (1988). English as cultural action. ELT Journal, 42(2), 73-83.

Prodromou, L. (2007). Is ELF a variety of English? English Today, 23(2), 47-53.

Qiang, N., & Wolff, M. (2005). Is EFL a modern Trojan horse? English Today, 21(4), 55-60.

Rampton, M. B. (1990). Displacing the ‘native speaker’: Expertise, affiliation and inheritance. ELT Journal, 44(2), 97-101.

Richards, J., Schmidt, R., Platt, H., & Schmidt, M. (1999). Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Malaysia: Longman.

Ritzer, G. (1995). The McDonaldization of society. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge.

Sánchez, A., & Obando, G. (2008). Is Colombia ready for “bilingualism”? Profile Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 9(1), 181-195.

Seidlhofer, B. (2004). Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 209–239.

Seidlhofer, B. (2005). English as a lingua franca. ELT Journal, 59(4), 339-341.

Valdes, J. M. (ed.) (1986). Culture bound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vélez-Rendón, G. (2003). English in Colombia: A sociolinguistic profile. World Englishes, 22(2), 185-198.